| HEA and Restoration Scaling Technical Papers
The papers included on this page include references concerning the use of
Habitat Equivalency Analysis as well as general guidance concerning scaling of
compensatory restoration. We will be regularly updating this page (both the
bibliography and studies linked below); if you are interested in receiving
notification of new studies added, please e-mail
Anthony Dvarskas to be on our distribution list.
DARRP Technical Paper 97-1, October, 1998.
An approach to calculating natural resource compensation with a specific
application to the Blackbird Mine hazardous waste site in Idaho. The paper
focuses on the interim loss portion of a damage claim and presents an
integrated framework of biology and economics for determining the scale of
compensatory restoration actions appropriate to compensate for the interim loss
of natural resources and services.
"Discounting and the Treatment of Uncertainty in Natural
Resource Damage Assessment", February 1999. - NOAA's final
regulations for natural resource damage assessments under OPA address
discounting and uncertainty in the calculation of damage claims. The document
offered here, "Discounting and the Treatment of Uncertainty in Natural Resource
Damage Assessment", Technical Paper provides additional explanation and
examples of the approaches outlined in the regulations. The document is not
regulatory; rather, it is presented to elaborate on the language in the OPA
final regulations regarding the treatment of discounting and uncertainty in
damage assessments. We recommend that this approach also be used for
assessments conducted under CERCLA and the National Marine Sanctuaries Act
unless the regulations therein specifically require otherwise.
Habitat Equivalency Analysis ("HEA") - Collection
of papers on Habitat Equivalency Analysis ("HEA") that provides detailed
information on using this analytical framework for estimating how much
restoration is needed to compensate for the interim loss of natural resources.
HEA directly addresses the type and scale of restoration, without directly
valuing the interim loss in economic terms. These documents were developed for
natural resource damage assessments involving injury to seagrass beds and coral
reefs in the Florida Keys. The documents are:
"Calculating Resource Restoration for an Oil Discharge
in Lake Barre, Louisiana, USA"
. This paper presents an oil spill case from coastal Louisiana where habitat
equivalency analysis was applied to quantify natural resource impacts and
determine the scale of restoration. The article appears in Environmental
Management as "Calculating Resource Restoration for an Oil Discharge in Lake
Barre, Louisiana, USA" by T. Penn and T. Tomasi, 2002, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp.
List of Habitat Types and Functions,
Scaling Compensatory Restoration Actions: Guidance
Document for Natural Resource Damage Assessment Under the Oil Pollution Act of
1990, December 1997.
For further information, the bibliography below lists several HEA-related publications in academic texts:
Allen PD II, Chapman DJ, Lane D (2004a) Scaling environmental restoration to
offset injury using habitat equivalency analysis. In: Bruins RJF, Heberling MT
(eds) Economics and ecological risk assessment: Applications to watershed management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 165–184.
Allen PD II, Raucher R, Strange E, Mills D, Beltman D (2004b) The habitat-based
replacement cost method: Building on habitat equivalency analysis to inform
regulatory or permit decisions under the Clean Water Act. In: Bruins RJF,
Heberling MT (eds) Economics and ecological risk assessment: Applications to
watershed management. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp 401–422.
Barnthouse LW, Stahl RG (2002) Quantifying natural resource injuries and
ecological service reductions: Challenges and opportunities. Environ Manage
Cacela D, Lipton J, Beltman D, Hansen J, Wolotira R (2005) Associating ecosystem
service losses with indicators of toxicity in habitat equivalency analysis.
Environ Manage 35:343– 351.
Dunford RW, Ginn TC, Desvousges WH (2004) The use of habitat equivalency
analysis in natural resource damage assessments. Ecol Econ 48:49–70.
Flores, NE, Thacher J (2002) Money, who needs it? Natural resource damage
assessment. Contemporary Econ Pol 20: 171-178.
Fonseca MS, Julius BE, Kenworthy WJ (2000) Integrating biology and economics in
seagrass restoration: How much is enough and why? Ecol Engin 15:227-237.
Hampton S, Zafonte M (2005) Calculating compensatory restoration in natural
resource damage assessments: Recent experience in California. In: Magoon OT,
Converse H, Baird B, Jines B, Miller-Henson M (eds) Proceedings of the
California and the World Ocean 02 conference: Revisiting and revising
California's ocean agenda. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston,
Virginia, pp 933–944.
Jones, CA, Pease KA (1997) Restoration-based compensation measures in natural
resource liability statutes. Contemporary Econ Pol 15: 111-122.
Mazzotta, M.J, Opaluch JJ, Grigalunas T (1994) Natural resource damage
assessment: The role of resource restoration. Nat Resour J 34: 153-178.
Milon JW, Dodge RE (2001) Applying habitat equivalency analysis for coral reef
damage assessment and restoration. Bull Mar Sci
Penn T, Tomasi T (2002) Calculating resource restoration for an oil discharge in
Lake Barre, Louisiana, USA. Environ Manage 29(5):691–702.
Roach B, Wade WW (2006) Policy evaluation of natural resource injuries using
habitat equivalency analysis. Ecol Econ 58: 421-433.
Strange E, Galbraith H, Bickel S, Mills D, Beltman D, Lipton J (2002)
Determining ecological equivalence in service-to-service scaling of salt marsh
restoration. Env Manage 29:290-300.
Thur SM (2007) Refining the use of habitat equivalency analysis. Env Manage
Unsworth RE, Bishop RC (1994) Assessing natural resource damages using
environmental annuities. Ecol Econ 11:35–41.
Viehman S, Thur SM, Piniak GA (2009) Coral reef metrics and habitat equivalency
analysis. Ocean Coast Manage 52:181-188.
Zafonte M, Hampton S (2007) Exploring welfare implications of resource
equivalency analysis in natural resource damage assessments. Ecol Econ